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Rare Music Materials at Stanford

Early American tune books

'To please the taste of the public'

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The Christian harmony, or, Songster's companion
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The Christian harmony, or, the Second part of the Art of singing : comprising a select variety of psalm and hymn tunes : together with a number of airs and anthems calculated for schools and churches : in 2 volumes / by Andrew Law
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The easy instructor, or, A new method of teaching sacred harmony : containing the rudiments of music on an improved plan, wherein the naming and timing of the notes are familiarized to the weakest capacity ; with a choice collection of psalm tunes and anthems from the most celebrated authors, with a number composed in Europe and America, entirely new, suited to all the metres sung in the different churches in the United States
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The singing master's assistant, or Key to practical music : being an abridgement from the New-England Psalm-singer : together with several other tunes, never before published

~ An exhibit in the Music Library, Fall 2012 ~

Over the course of the 18th century, congregational singing in Protestant churches suffered a slow deterioration as colonists distanced themselves from European traditions and practices. The typical call-and-response hymn singing, in which the congregation mimicked lines sung by the preacher, had devolved into a cacophony due to the congregation’s lack of vocal skill and musical training, combined with increasingly individualized interpretations of traditional European tunes, poorly remembered. In order to strengthen participation in worship, a “new” way of singing from notes, as opposed to the “old” way of singing from memory, was needed.

Enter the singing master and the singing school. The singing master was an itinerant teacher who set up schools in communities where people desired to learn to sing from printed music. This was one of few avenues for a musician to make a living at that time. Singing schools, which charged modest fees and were open to both men and women, were the first form of public music education in the fledgling United States.

That the sexes could mingle in approved communal (supervised) surroundings was a bonus for many of the younger participants. Learning music through psalm singing was also a way to cultivate a young person’s talent while at the same time saving them from the negative moral influences suspected in Italian opera music, also popular at the time.

A market for tune books, which included rudimentary music instruction and 3- and 4- part hymns, anthems, and other tunes, quickly developed. Around the turn of the 19th century, over 300 editions representing 150 titles were in circulation. Music making had become a vital part of life in the new nation. These books also represented the first flowering of indigenous American composition, including many pieces by William Billings, Andrew Law, Samuel Holyoke, and Jeremiah Ingalls.