S

Sacra Via

The oldest street in Rome, the name of which has not ben satisfactorily explained either in ancient literature or by modern research. It follows the course of a stream, which was later canalised and covered over. According to tradition, it started in the vallev where the Colosseum now stands, crossed the Velia, and, after passing along the north side of the Forum Adiectum, it entered the Forum through the Fornix Fabianus, and approached the Arch of Augustus between the Regia and the Temple of Vesta. At this point the stream, flowing below the Sacra Via, joined the Cloaca Maxima; and according to ancient official accounts the Sacra Via ends here. However, it continued as a processional way, past the Temple of Castor and the Basilica Iulia, until, at the entrance of the Vicus Iugarius into the Forum, it merged into the Clivus Capitolinus. After the Temple of Caesar was built, a new branch of the street passed on the north side of the Regia and the Temple of Caesar, turning south-west in front of the Rostra Aedis Divi Iuli, and joining the original Sacra Via opposite the Vicus Tuscus.

Via Sacra, to the north of the Arch of Titus, Augustan level
Via Sacra, to the north of the Arch of Titus, Augustan level
Via Sacra, the Clivus Sacer, Augustan level
Via Sacra, the Clivus Sacer, Augustan level
Via Sacra, original path between the Temple of Vesta and the Regia
Via Sacra, original path between the Temple of Vesta and the Regia
Via Sacra, new branch between the Temple of Antoninus and Faustina and the Regia
Via Sacra, new branch between the Temple of Antoninus and Faustina and the Regia
Via Sacra, in front of the Basilica Julia
Via Sacra, in front of the Basilica Julia
Via Sacra, the junction of the branch leading round the Temple of Julius Caesar with the original Via Sacra
Via Sacra, the junction of the branch leading round the Temple of Julius Caesar with the original Via Sacra
Via Sacra, section between the Basilica of Maxentius and the Regia, Augustan level
Via Sacra, section between the Basilica of Maxentius and the Regia, Augustan level
Via Sacra, in front of the Basilica Iulia
Via Sacra, in front of the Basilica Iulia
Via Sacra, the Clivus Sacer, Augustan level
Via Sacra, the Clivus Sacer, Augustan level
Via Sacra, section between the Basilica of Maxentius and the Regia, Augustan level
Via Sacra, section between the Basilica of Maxentius and the Regia, Augustan level
Via Sacra, section in front of the "Temple of Romulus," in the winter of 1953
Via Sacra, section in front of the "Temple of Romulus," in the winter of 1953

Saepta Iulia et Diribitorium

The great voting precinct in the Campus Martius, for the elections of the comitia tributa, was started by Julius Caesar. The work was continued by the triumvir Lepidus and, in 26 B.C., it was dedicated by Agrippa. Until 1934, the remains of the Saepta Iulia were thought to lie along the Via Lata, on the west side of the Via del Corso; but Guglielmo Gatti's researches have ascertained, on the evidence of the Severan marble plan, that the building lav between the Pantheon and the Temple of Isis, in the Campus Martius. The central structure was about 300 m. long and 95 m. wide, and was bounded on the east by the Porticus Meleagri and on the west by the Porticus Argonautarum. The perimeter wall of the latter, decorated with niches, may be seen on the east side of the Pantheon. Across the south end of the Saepta Iulia lay the Diribitorium where, after the elections, the votes were counted. Its south wall was discovered, over a length of some 105 m., between Piazza del Gesù and Via di S. Nicola de' Cesarini, while sewers were being built under the new Corso Vittorio Emanuele in 1884.

Saepta Julia, outer wall of the Porticus Argonautarum along the eastern side of the Pantheon
Saepta Julia, outer wall of the Porticus Argonautarum along the eastern side of the Pantheon
Saepta Julia, outer wall of the Porticus Argonautarum along the eastern side of the Pantheon
Saepta Julia, outer wall of the Porticus Argonautarum along the eastern side of the Pantheon
Saepta Julia, outer wall of the Porticus Argonautarum along the eastern side of the Pantheon
Saepta Julia, outer wall of the Porticus Argonautarum along the eastern side of the Pantheon

Saturnus, Templum

[Also known as: Temple of Saturn]

According to tradition, the Temple of Saturn was consecrated in 498 B.C. The existing remains of the podium belong to a rebuilding by L. Munatius Plancus in 42 B.C. From the inscription on the architrave (CIL VI, 937), we know that the temple was again rebuilt, after being destroyed by fire, presumably at the beginning of the 4th century A.D. From republican times it was the repository of the State Treasury: Aerarium Populi Romani, or Aerarium Saturni. The room, which has been indentified as the Aerarium, lies to the east of the narrow stairway of the temple (FUR, Tav. XXI), and was accessible from the Clivus Capitolinus, through a door which could be locked. The temple is represented on one of the Plutei Traiani (q. v. II, 905).

Temple of Saturn, from the southeast
Temple of Saturn, from the southeast
Temple of Saturn, pronaos as viewed from the south, featuring an arch that supports the staircase
Temple of Saturn, pronaos as viewed from the south, featuring an arch that supports the staircase
Temple of Saturn, the interior as viewed from the southwest
Temple of Saturn, the interior as viewed from the southwest
Temple of Saturn, columns of the pronaos featuring Roman, Ionic capitals and palmetto frieze, originally from the Forum of Trajan
Temple of Saturn, columns of the pronaos featuring Roman, Ionic capitals and palmetto frieze, originally from the Forum of Trajan
Temple of Saturn, place where the Aerarium stood, to the east of the pronaos staircase
Temple of Saturn, place where the Aerarium stood, to the east of the pronaos staircase
Temple of Saturn, detail of the marble threshold of the Aerarium gate, featuring hinge holes
Temple of Saturn, detail of the marble threshold of the Aerarium gate, featuring hinge holes
Temple of Saturn, the interior as viewed from the southwest
Temple of Saturn, the interior as viewed from the southwest
Temple of Saturn, the interior as viewed from the Clivus Capitolinus, in the winter of 1937
Temple of Saturn, the interior as viewed from the Clivus Capitolinus, in the winter of 1937
Temple of Saturn, detail of the marble threshold of the Aerarium gate and arch beneath the pronaos, discovered and restored in 1899
Temple of Saturn, detail of the marble threshold of the Aerarium gate and arch beneath the pronaos, discovered and restored in 1899
Temple of Saturn and cloaca in tufa opus quadratum, discovered in 1899 in front of the temple
Temple of Saturn and cloaca in tufa opus quadratum, discovered in 1899 in front of the temple

Scalae Caci

Immediately east of the "casa Romuli" (s. Palatinus Mons II, p. 163) a narrow and steep path, enclosed by walls on both sides, descended from the Palatine to the valley of the Circus Maximus. At the upper end are the remains of a gate of the early imperial period, with a travertine sill and piers. Only a short stretch of the path is preserved, and buildings of the imperial epoch cover its lower part. This entrance to the Palatine was called the Scalae Caci because, according to the legend, the giant Cacus had his den in the region of the Forum Boarium, at the foot of the steps, and was slain there by Hercules. No steps are visible in the preserved part of the Scalae Caci.

Scalae Caci, featuring traces of a gate in the foreground
Scalae Caci, featuring traces of a gate in the foreground
Scalae Caci, seen from the west
Scalae Caci, seen from the west

Schola Xanthi

An office of the "scribae, librarii et praecones aedilium curulium," which was restored by the curatores: one, the freedman Bebryx Drusianus and one, Aulus Fabius Xanthus. This fact is known from an inscription (CIL VI, 103 = 30692), which was found in 1539 during an excavation beneath the Temple of Saturn (which at that time was called the Temple of Concordia), together with other remains of a small building, richly decorated with marble. The upper structure no longer exists, but the small trapezoidal room with the remains of a marble floor, which lies between the Arch of Tiberius and the Rostra, is attributed to the Schola Xanthi.

Schola Xanthi, remnants of a marble floor between the Arch of Tiberius to the left and the Rostra Augusti to the right
Schola Xanthi, remnants of a marble floor between the Arch of Tiberius to the left and the Rostra Augusti to the right

Septizodium

Septimius Severus built a monumental facade to his palace on the Palatine facing the Via Appia, which in ancient literature was called the Septizonium or Septizodium. A new arrangement of the fragments of the Severan marble plan, in which the inscription belonging to the building is completed, shows that its official title was "Septizodium" (FUR, p. 67). The name is thought to refer to the seven planets. The Septizodium was dedicated in 203 A.D., according to an inscription (CIL VI, 1032, 31229) which once ran the whole length of the facade. The eastern corner of the building, which was still standing at the time of Sixtus V, is known from countless drawings and paintings of the 15th and 16th centuries. It was pulled down in 1588/89 and the material, about which a detailed account was drawn up by the architect Domenico Fontana, was used for other papal buildings.

Circus Maximus, aerial view
Circus Maximus, aerial view

Sepulcra Familiae Marcellae Et Aliorum

Since the middle of the 15th century countless columbaria with hundreds of niches for urns have been discovered in the area between the Via Appia and Via Latina, and bounded on the south by the Aurelian Wall. Apart from the Sepulcrum Pomponii Hylae (q. v.), only the three Columbari di Vigna Codini are preserved. They served as burial places for the freedmen of the Julian-Claudian dynasty, and for relations of the imperial family. In 1847, the second columbarium to be excavated contained an overwhelming number of burial places of the freedmen of Marcella, who was the first wife of Agrippa, and of her daughter, Marcella the younger. The first columbarium was excavated in 1840 and the third in 1852.

Tomb of the Marcelli, columbarium I, west wing
Tomb of the Marcelli, columbarium I, west wing

Sepulcretum

In April 1902, an archaic necropolis was discovered beside the Sacra Via, south-east of the Temple of Antoninus and Faustina, which was given the name "Sepulcretum" by the excavator Giacomo Boni (NSc, 1903, p. 1231). The cemetery contained both cremations and inhumations from the 8th to the 6th centuries B.C. During the excavations which began in 1950, near the Arch of Augustus and the Temple of Divus Iulius, more urn burials were discovered in what was apparently an extension of the Sepulcretum along the Sacra Via. A tomb, discovered in 1951 on the south side of the Temple of Divus Iulius, dated from the 9th century, and the following year three tombs of a later period (about the middle of the 7th century) were found in the immediate neighbourhood. Four cremations of the same period were excavated in 1959, below the pronaos of the Temple of Divus Iulius.

Roman Forum, sepulcretum (tombs), southeast of the Temple of Antoninus and Faustina
Roman Forum, sepulcretum (tombs), southeast of the Temple of Antoninus and Faustina
Tombs, before they were filled in, the Via Sacra is on the right
Tombs, before they were filled in, the Via Sacra is on the right

Sepulcrum Aureliorum

The burial place of a Christian sect, of the first half of the 3rd century, was discovered in 1919, on the corner of Viale Manzoni and Via Luigi Luzzatti. The upper burial chamber is to a great extent destroyed, but both chambers of the lower level (A - the northern and B - the southern), together with a vestibule V, between room B and the stairway, are preserved with all their wall-paintings. The rooms of the lower storey have stairs leading down to a catacomb, which apparently did not extend very far; after the Aurelian Wall was built (270-282 A.D.), the Sepulcrum Aureliorum lay inside the city and could no longer be used for burials.

Tomb of the Aurelii, chamber B, with staircase and, in the background, chamber A
Tomb of the Aurelii, chamber B, with staircase and, in the background, chamber A
Tomb of the Aurelii, chamber B, south wall, featuring an arcosolium and fresco paintings
Tomb of the Aurelii, chamber B, south wall, featuring an arcosolium and fresco paintings
Tomb of the Aurelii, monumental gate in the north part of chamber A opened at a later stage, which gave access to the lower galleries dug into the tufa
Tomb of the Aurelii, monumental gate in the north part of chamber A opened at a later stage, which gave access to the lower galleries dug into the tufa
Tomb of the Aurelii, chamber A, east wall, lunette featuring fresco paintings
Tomb of the Aurelii, chamber A, east wall, lunette featuring fresco paintings
Tomb of the Aurelii, staircase as viewed between chambers A and B, and, in the background, chamber A
Tomb of the Aurelii, staircase as viewed between chambers A and B, and, in the background, chamber A
Tomb of the Aurelii, chamber A, north wall, lunette featuring fresco paintings, partially destroyed by the gate
Tomb of the Aurelii, chamber A, north wall, lunette featuring fresco paintings, partially destroyed by the gate

Sepulcrum Bibuli

The tomb of C. Poplicius Bibulus stands on the east side of the Victor-Emanuel Monument; according to the inscription (CIL VI, 1319, 31599), it was erected by the Senate "honoris virtutisque caussa." It stood outside the Servian Wall, on the street which led from the Porta Fontinalis to the Via Flaminia. The south-west facade is preserved and has an opening like a window in the centre, which was presumably a niche for the statue of the deceased. The tomb dates from the first half of the 1st century B.C. The podium, which is 4.75 m. high, was excavated in 1907. The inscription is on the upper register.

Tomb of Gaius Publicius Bibulus
Tomb of Gaius Publicius Bibulus

Sepulcrum C. Cestii

[Also known as: Pyramid of Caius Cestius]

C. Cestius, a contemporary of Augustus, had his tomb on the Via Ostiensis built in the form of a pyramid. The inscriptions on the east and west sides of the pyramid name his official position as Praetor, Tribunus Plebis, and Septemvir Epulonum (CIL VI, 1374). Two statue bases, which were found in front of the monument in 1662, give the names of his heirs (CIL VI, 1375) among whom was M. Agrippa, the son-in-law of Augustus. The date of the death of C. Cestius is not known; we only know that he died before Agrippa in 12 B.C. The pyramid is incorporated in the Aurelian city fortifications, next to the Porta Ostiensis. In the Middle Ages it was known as the Meta Remi (CodTop IV, p. 73), as distinct from the Meta Romuli (q. v. II, p. 59) in the Borgo. In 1663 it was restored by Alexander VII and a new entrance to the burial chamber was made, with a door on the west side.

Pyramid of Caius Cestius, west side with inscription
Pyramid of Caius Cestius, west side with inscription
Pyramid of Caius Cestius, east side featuring the Aurelian Walls and the gate that gave access to the sepulchral chamber, opened in 1663
Pyramid of Caius Cestius, east side featuring the Aurelian Walls and the gate that gave access to the sepulchral chamber, opened in 1663
Pyramid of Caius Cestius, west side
Pyramid of Caius Cestius, west side
Pyramid of Caius Cestius, west side
Pyramid of Caius Cestius, west side

Sepulcrum C. Sulpicii Platorini

When the Tiber embankment was being built in 1880, the family tomb of the Sulpicii Platorini was discovered on the right bank, between the Pons Agrippae and the Aurelian Wall (s. plan, Pons Agrippae II, 915). The marble tablet over the entrance gives the owner's name as C. Sulpicius Platorinus (CIL VI, 31761), who was triumvir monetalis in 18 B.C. The other inscriptions found in the tomb (CILVI, 31762-31768a) date from the time of Augustus to the Flavians. When the Aurelian Wall was built, the upper part of the tomb had been covered over, and the urns and statues which it contained were thus preserved. They could not be left in situ, because of the depth at which they were situated in the Tiber bank. Accordingly, they were removed to the Baths of Diocletian, together with the architectural remains, and the tomb was reassembled, and its facade restored, on the occasion of the Archaeological Exhibition in 1911.

Tomb of C. Sulpicius Platorinus, the façade
Tomb of C. Sulpicius Platorinus, the façade

Sepulcrum Corneliae

When the Porta Salaria of the Aurelian Wall was pulled down in 1871, the remains of a tomb were found under the west tower. It consisted of a square travertine base, supporting a circular building faced with marble. According to fragments of an inscription (CIL VI, 1296), it was the grave of Cornelia, daughter of L. Scipio and wife of Vatienus. When the new Porta Salaria (q. v. II, p. 229) was removed for traffic reasons, the remains of the tomb were reassembled west of the new opening in the wall. Since 1950, the Tomb of Cornelia has stood outside the wall, between the Porta Salaria and Porta Pinciana.

Tomb of Cornelia, rebuilt in 1850 in front of the Aurelian Walls between Porta Salaria and Porta Pinciana
Tomb of Cornelia, rebuilt in 1850 in front of the Aurelian Walls between Porta Salaria and Porta Pinciana

Sepulcrum Eurysacis

[Also known as: Tomb of the Baker]

The tomb of the baker M. Vergileus Eurysaces stands outside the Porta Maggiore, in the angle where the ancient Via Labicana (now Casilina) branched off the Via Praenestina. It dates from the second half of the 1st century B.C. The sanctity of the tomb was respected during the subsequent building of the monumental arches of the Aqua Claudia and the Anio Novus (Porta Maggiore); but when the Porta Praenestina was rebuilt by Honorius, the tomb was covered by the central tower of the gateway. In 1838, under Gregory XVI, the double-gateway was pulled down (s. Porta Praenestina II, p.225) and the tomb of Eurysaces came to light. Its inscription (CIL VI, 1958) was already known from Renaissance drawings. The tomb was decorated with rows of vertical and horizontal corn-measures, and a frieze representing the various operations of bread-making, weighing and delivering; it was called a "panarium" by its owner (funeral inscription of Atistia, CIL VI, 1958; fig. 1100). The base of the monument was uncovered, down to its ancient level, during the 1955/57 excavations.

Tomb of Eurysaces, the funerary inscription of M. Vergileus Eurysaces on the north side of the monument
Tomb of Eurysaces, the funerary inscription of M. Vergileus Eurysaces on the north side of the monument
Tomb of Eurysaces, south and west sides during the excavations of 1957
Tomb of Eurysaces, south and west sides during the excavations of 1957
Tomb of Eurysaces, north side after the excavation of 1957
Tomb of Eurysaces, north side after the excavation of 1957
Tomb of Eurysaces, funerary inscription to Atistia, wife of Eurysaces
Tomb of Eurysaces, funerary inscription to Atistia, wife of Eurysaces
Tomb of Eurysaces, before the excavations of 1955-1957
Tomb of Eurysaces, before the excavations of 1955-1957
Tomb of Eurysaces, statues of Eurysaces and his wife Atistia
Tomb of Eurysaces, statues of Eurysaces and his wife Atistia
Tomb of Eurysaces, south and east sides after the excavation of 1957
Tomb of Eurysaces, south and east sides after the excavation of 1957
Tomb of Eurysaces, south and east sides after the excavation of 1957
Tomb of Eurysaces, south and east sides after the excavation of 1957

Sepulcrum P. Aelii Guttae Calpurniani

The famous charioteer, whose name and whose 1127 victories are known from an inscription (CIL VI, 10047) copied in the 8th century by the Anonymous Einsidlensis, had his tomb built during his life time on the Via Flaminia, beyond the gate. Remains of the reliefs which decorated it, showing three quadrigas racing, were found in the fill of the eastern tower of the Porta Flaminia (q. v. II, 952), when it was demolished in 1877. The fragments of these reliefs, which have been dated to the middle of the 2nd century A.D., are now in the garden of the Museo Nuovo Capitolino (Inv. 2243-2244).

Tomb of P. Aelius Mari Rogati, slab of a relief featuring quadrigae
Tomb of P. Aelius Mari Rogati, slab of a relief featuring quadrigae
Tomb of P. Aelius Mari Rogati, architectural decorations
Tomb of P. Aelius Mari Rogati, architectural decorations

Sepulcrum Pomponii Hylae

The columbarium of Pomponius Hylas lies immediately inside the Porta Latina of the Aurelian Wall (R. Lanciani, FUR, 46); it was discovered and excavated in 1831 by Pietro Campana. The name of its founder and his wife Pomponia Vitalinis are recorded in an inscription in coloured mosaic (CIL VI, 5552) at the entrance to the tomb, over the stairway of 28 steps which lead down to the burial chamber. The other funerary inscriptions belonging to the columbarium (CIL VI, 5539-5557), which can be dated up to the second half of the 2nd century A.D., show no family connection with Pomponius Hylas.

Colombarium of Pomponius Hylas, inscription of the owner and of his wife Pomponia Vitalinis, carried out in mosaic and situated in the stairwell
Colombarium of Pomponius Hylas, inscription of the owner and of his wife Pomponia Vitalinis, carried out in mosaic and situated in the stairwell

Sepulcrum Q. Haterii

Early in 1826, the south tower of the Porta Nomentana (q. v. II, p. 217), which had been closed since 1564, was pulled down in order to expose the tomb beneath it. Pieces of travertine facing and marble decoration were found, as well as the rectangular concrete core. It was in the form of a large altar with two volutes. On the front was the funerary inscription of Q. Haterius (CIL VI, 1426), presumably the celebrated orator who died in 26 A.D. (Tacitus, Ann. IV, 61).

Tomb of Q. Haterius, incorporated into the Aurelian Walls, to the south of Porta Nomentana
Tomb of Q. Haterius, incorporated into the Aurelian Walls, to the south of Porta Nomentana

Sepulcrum Q. Sulpicii Maximi

The tomb of Q. Sulpicius Maximus, an eleven year old boy, was discovered under the east tower of the Porta Salaria, when it was pulled down in 1871 (s. Porta Salaria II, 977). The tomb stone has a statue of Q. Sulpicius in a niche; he is wearing a toga, and on either side is the Greek poem (CIL VI, 33976), with which the boy won distinction at the third Capitoline contest, under Domitian, 94 A.D. (s. Suetonius, Domitian, IV, 4). The stone is now in the Museo Nuovo Capitolino. The remains of the tomb were left where they had been found, in front of Vespignani's new Porta Salaria (q. v. II, 976), until 1921, when the gate was removed to ease the flow of traffic. The tomb was then re-erected to the east of the new opening in the wall.

Tomb of Q. Sulpicius Maximus, tombstone in the Museo Nuovo Capitolino
Tomb of Q. Sulpicius Maximus, tombstone in the Museo Nuovo Capitolino
Tomb of Q. Sulpicius Maximus, tomb in the position which it has occupied since 1921
Tomb of Q. Sulpicius Maximus, tomb in the position which it has occupied since 1921

Sepulcrum Quinctiorum Et Aliorum

When the Via di S. Croce in Gerusalemme was widened in 1916/18, a row of tombs was uncovered at its intersection with Via Statilia. Of these, the ones at the north-east corner of the Villa Wolkonsky have been preserved. The tomb of P. Quinctius was nearest to Via di S. Croce in Gerusalemme; he built it for himself, his wife Quinctia, and the freedwoman Quinctia Agatea whom he took as his common-law wife after the death of the first. Next came a double tomb, the travertine facade of which is decorated with portraits of the deceased, freedmen of the families Clodia, Marcia, and Annia. Two other tombs stood at the west end of the row, of which the furthest to the west was built for one A. Caesonius. The tombs date from the end of the Republic; they flanked an ancient road which left the city by the Porta Caelimontana (s. Arcus Dolabellae et Silani I, p.113), and reached the Porta Maggiore by way of Via di S. Stefano Rotondo, Piazza S. Giovanni in Laterano, Via Domenico Fontana, Villa Wolkonsky, and Via Statilia.

Tomb of P. Quinctius, interior of the Sepulcrum Geminus, with added walls in opus reticulatum
Tomb of P. Quinctius, interior of the Sepulcrum Geminus, with added walls in opus reticulatum
Tomb of P. Quinctius, facades of the double tomb and of the tomb of P. Quinctius
Tomb of P. Quinctius, facades of the double tomb and of the tomb of P. Quinctius

Sepulcrum Scipionum

The tomb of the Cornelii Scipiones lay on the Via Appia, about 380 m. inside the Porta Appia of the Aurelian Wall. It was first discovered in 1614, when the funerary inscription of Lucius Scipio, son of L. Cornelius Scipio Barbatus (CIL VI, 1287) came to light. The site of the tomb was forgotten, then in May 1780 it was rediscovered, and in the course of three years work it was excavated. The funerary inscriptions of the members of the family of the Cornelii Scipiones are preserved (CIL VI, 1284-1294); they were buried in sarcophagi, of which only that of Scipio Barbatus, consul in 298 B.C., is decorated. It was discovered in 1782 and taken to the Vatican. The tomb, which had been detached by unsystematic excavations, was restored as far as possible to its original condition, in 1926.

Tomb of the Scipios, inscription of Lucius Scipio found in 1614 and taken to the Barberini Palace
Tomb of the Scipios, inscription of Lucius Scipio found in 1614 and taken to the Barberini Palace

Sepulcrum Semproniorum

In 1863, a tomb dating from the late republican era was excavated on the slope of the Quirinal, in Via Dataria. The inscription over the arch of the entrance, which gives the name of one Cn. Sempronius, his sister Sempronia and their mother Larcia, had been known since the 17th century (CIL VI, 26152). The travertine facade faced south-west, standing beside a street which led from the Campus Martius to the gate in the Servian Wall, at the north-west side of the Quirinal Hill.

Tomb of the Sempronii, part of the travertine facade with the funerary inscription
Tomb of the Sempronii, part of the travertine facade with the funerary inscription

Sepulcrum Statiliorum Et Aliorum

In 1875, the Compagnia Fondiaria Italiana conducted a systematic excavation in the cemetery which stretched from the Nymphaeum in the Licinian Gardens to the Porta Maggiore; it led to the discovery of the Columbarium of the family of Statilius Taurus which contained more than 700 loculi (CIL VI, 6213-6640). Not far off, a small tomb 2.90 x 1.95 m. and 4.20 m. in height, was excavated, the fresco decoration of which is of especial artistic and historic interest. A frieze of the time of Augustus with illustrations of the Aeneid and the early history of Rome, occupied the middle zone of the walls; the upper half and the vaulted ceiling was decorated with paintings of the early 3rd century. The frieze was removed, and is now in the Museo Nazionale Romano. The remaining ceiling and wall frescoes were reburied or destroyed, after they had been photographed in 1875 (Parker Catalogue, 3312-3316).

Tomb of the Statili, inscription of the"Familia T. Statili Tauri" that stood over the entrance to the colombarium
Tomb of the Statili, inscription of the"Familia T. Statili Tauri" that stood over the entrance to the colombarium
Tomb of the Statili, the excavated columbarium before it was filled up again in 1875
Tomb of the Statili, the excavated columbarium before it was filled up again in 1875
Tomb of the Statili, left side of the east wall frieze
Tomb of the Statili, left side of the east wall frieze
Tomb of the Statili, frieze of the northern wall
Tomb of the Statili, frieze of the northern wall
Tomb of the Statili, frieze of the southern wall
Tomb of the Statili, frieze of the southern wall
Tomb of the Statili, the preserved remains of the west wall frieze
Tomb of the Statili, the preserved remains of the west wall frieze
Tomb of the Statili, central part of the frieze of the southern wall, Battle of the River Numicus
Tomb of the Statili, central part of the frieze of the southern wall, Battle of the River Numicus

Sepulcrum TI. Claudii Vitalis

This columbarium, of the middle of the 1st century A.D., was discovered in 1866 in the Villa Wolkonsky, on an ancient road which ran parallel with the Arcus Caelimontani of the Aqua Claudia (q. v. I, p. 37). The three-storeyed structure was built for Tiberius Claudius Vitalis by members of his family, of whom two were called "architectus" (CIL VI, 9151).

Tomb of Ti. Claudius Vitalis, marble inscription on the outside of the tomb
Tomb of Ti. Claudius Vitalis, marble inscription on the outside of the tomb
Tomb of Ti. Claudius Vitalis, interior of the second storey
Tomb of Ti. Claudius Vitalis, interior of the second storey
Tomb of Ti. Claudius Vitalis, exterior view
Tomb of Ti. Claudius Vitalis, exterior view

Serapis, Templum

[Also known as: Temple of Serapis]

The ruins of a building on the west slope of the Quirinal have been identified as the Temple of Serapis (CIL VI, 570), which was built by Caracalla in the VI Region (CodTop I, p. 107). Part of the ruins lies in the gardens of the Palazzo Colonna, and part in the Università Gregoriana Pontificia. Until early in the 17th century, part of the rear wall of the temple cella was still standing, and it is known to us from numerous 16th century drawings as "Torre Mesa", "Torre di Mecenate", or "Frontispizio di Nerone" (s. Egger, Romische Veduten II, 86-88). A corner-piece of the marble pediment of the rear wall, and a fragment of the marble frieze, have lain in the gardens of the Palazzo Colonna since about 1630 when the wall was destroved. A monumental double-stairway led down from the temple on the Quirinal to the Campus Martius; part of its enclosure walls and sections of four partition walls are still preserved.

Temple of Serapis, external southern wall of the staircase substructure
Temple of Serapis, external southern wall of the staircase substructure
Temple of Serapis, external northern wall of the staircase substructure
Temple of Serapis, external northern wall of the staircase substructure
Temple of Serapis, staircase substructure of the Università Gregoriana
Temple of Serapis, staircase substructure of the Università Gregoriana
Temple of Serapis, external southern wall of the staircase substructure
Temple of Serapis, external southern wall of the staircase substructure
Temple of Serapis, tympanum cornice fragments and other architectural sculptures in the garden of the Villa Colonna
Temple of Serapis, tympanum cornice fragments and other architectural sculptures in the garden of the Villa Colonna
Temple of Serapis, external northern wall of the staircase substructure
Temple of Serapis, external northern wall of the staircase substructure
Temple of Serapis, remnants of the external southern wall of the staircase substructure in the garden of Villa Colonna
Temple of Serapis, remnants of the external southern wall of the staircase substructure in the garden of Villa Colonna

Sessorium

The residence of the empress Helena, which was known as the Sessorium, or the Palatium Sessorianum (CIL VI, 1134) was situated in the Horti Spei Veteris. In the preceding century, Heliogabalus (218- 222 A.D.) had a villa there, which in size and character was comparable with Nero's Domus Aurea, or Hadrian's Villa at Tivoli. The Amphitheatrum Castrense (q. v. I, 1-4), the Circus Varianus (q. v. I, 280-282) and the Thermae Helenae (q. v. II, 1257-1262) all formed part of it. An atrium of the palace, measuring 39.25 m. x 24.80 m. and 22 m. in height, with five arched entrances on the side and rectangular windows above, was converted by Constantine into the church of S. Croce in Gerusalemme. A covered corridor, more than 300 m. long, led down the south side of the building, from the Amphitheatrum Castrense to the Circus Varianus (s. plan, Circus Varianus I, 280). The grounds of the villa were cut in half when the Aurelian Wall was built (270-272 A.D.), and the part outside the wall was apparently abandoned. The rear wall and apse of a building which stands north of the church, is referred to in Renaissance drawings as the "Tempio di Venere e Cupido," for no apparent reason. This hall does not belong to the original complex of the Sessorium, but dates from the beginning of the 4th century. The excavations, which started in 1958 and are not yet completed, have discovered further rooms of the palace with fresco decorations, to the east of the church.

Sessorium, ancient north wall of S. Croce in Gerusalemme
Sessorium, ancient north wall of S. Croce in Gerusalemme
Sessorium, ancient atrium of a palace behind the façade of S. Croce in Gerusalemme
Sessorium, ancient atrium of a palace behind the façade of S. Croce in Gerusalemme

Stadium Domitiani

[Also known as: Stadium of Domitian, Piazza Navona]

The Piazza Navona now occupies the site of the stadium, which was built by Domitian in 92/96 A.D., and restored in 228 A.D. by Alexander Severus. It was used for athletics, and gladiator contests were also held there, when the Colosseum was out of use after a fire at the time of Macrinus in 217 A.D. The stadium differed from the circus in having neither spina nor carceres. In mediaeval times, it was known as the "Circus Flaminius" (CodTop II, pp. 176, 180, 195), "Theatrum Alexandri" (CodTop III, p. 23), and "Circus Alexandri" (CodTop III, p. 219) and, until the 19th century, antiquarians and topographers unanimously identified it as the Circus of Alexander Severus. It was first recognized as the Stadium of Domitian by Urlichs in 1842. Its form and dimensions were established by excavations in 1868 (north side), 1869 (south perimeter), 1933/34 (east side, in the Corsia Agonale), and 1936/37 (the north curve). The remains of the north curve with the entrance gate, which were discovered in 1936, can be seen below the newly built houses to the west of Via Agonale.

Stadium of Domitian, travertine pier of the east side, discovered in 1933, in the Corsia Agonale
Stadium of Domitian, travertine pier of the east side, discovered in 1933, in the Corsia Agonale
Stadium of Domitian, side of the northern bend with entrance gate during the excavations of 1936-1937
Stadium of Domitian, side of the northern bend with entrance gate during the excavations of 1936-1937
Stadium of Domitian, aerial view of Piazza Navona
Stadium of Domitian, aerial view of Piazza Navona
Stadium of Domitian, aerial view of Piazza Navona
Stadium of Domitian, aerial view of Piazza Navona
Stadium of Domitian, side of the northern end during the excavations of 1936-1937
Stadium of Domitian, side of the northern end during the excavations of 1936-1937
Stadium of Domitian, aerial view of Piazza Navona
Stadium of Domitian, aerial view of Piazza Navona

Statio Annonae

The headquarters of the Praefectus Annonae, who was responsible for supplying the population of Rome with food, was situated in the Forum Boarium, near the Temple of Ceres (q. v. I, 261). In the 4th century A.D., a portico was built for the Statio Annonae, separated from the temple by a brick wall; its remains can be seen in the church of S. Maria in Cosmedin. Apparently it was part of this pagan building, and not the nearby Temple of Ceres, which was used as the foundation of the Diaconia in the 6th century. The identification of the building depends on inscriptions, which were found nearby and give the names of praefecti annonae (CIL VI, 1151, 31856).

Statio Annonae, arches and columns in the front part of the Church of S. Maria in Cosmedin
Statio Annonae, arches and columns in the front part of the Church of S. Maria in Cosmedin
Statio Annonae, columns of the front and of the north aisle of the Church of S. Maria in Cosmedin
Statio Annonae, columns of the front and of the north aisle of the Church of S. Maria in Cosmedin

Statio Aquarum

At the south and east sides of the Lacus Iuturnae (q. v.) are rooms which were possibly used for the care of the sick, who sought relief from their sufferings through the health giving waters of the spring of Iuturna. Statues of healing deities, such as the Dioscuri, Apollo, Serapis and Aesculapius, were found in the rooms and in the lacus itself, and give rise to the belief that the rooms were used for healing sleep, the "incubatio." In the 4th century A.D., these rooms became the headquarters of the curatores aquarum, who administered Rome's water supply. On the occasion of the dedication of the Statio Aquarum on 1st March 328 A.D., the curator aquarum, Fl. Maesius Egnatius Lollianus, erected a statue to the emperor Constantine.

Lacus Iuturnae, view of the Temple of Castor and Pollux
Lacus Iuturnae, view of the Temple of Castor and Pollux
Statio aquarum, dedicatory inscription to the "genius stationis aquarum"
Statio aquarum, dedicatory inscription to the "genius stationis aquarum"
Statio aquarum, rooms along the ramp that scales the Via Nova
Statio aquarum, rooms along the ramp that scales the Via Nova
Statio aquarum, the base of the statue of Constantine, erected on the occasion of the dedication of the Statio Aquarum by Fl. Maesius Egnatius Lollianus (CIL VI, 36951)
Statio aquarum, the base of the statue of Constantine, erected on the occasion of the dedication of the Statio Aquarum by Fl. Maesius Egnatius Lollianus (CIL VI, 36951)
Statio aquarum, room with a statue of Aesculapius
Statio aquarum, room with a statue of Aesculapius

Stationes Municipiorum

n the Forum Romanum, near the Volcanal (Pliny, Nat. Hist. XVI, 236), and flanking the Sacra Via between the Regia and the Arch of Titus, were certain small offices, similar to tabernae. They were maintained by representatives of cities of the Roman Empire, and were administered by a "stationarius" (CIL VI, 250). Among the cities mentioned in the inscriptions are: Noricum, Tivoli, Vienne, Caesarea, Tiberias (Claudiopolis) and Tarsus (Athenaeum 1958, pp. 106-116). A fragment of the architrave of the statio of Tarsus (Inscriptiones Graecae XIV, 1006 a) has been set up beside the Sacra Via, near its place of origin opposite the Templum Divi Romuli.

Stationes municipiorum, architrave fragment featuring an inscription of the statio of Tarsus on the Via Sacra
Stationes municipiorum, architrave fragment featuring an inscription of the statio of Tarsus on the Via Sacra

Statua Marsyae

In the centre of the Forum stood a fig-tree, an olive and a vine (s. Ficus Olea Vitis I, 485), and a statue of the satyr Marsyas, carrying a full wine-skin on his left shoulder. The statue with the fig-tree appears on the two Plutei Traiani reliefs (q. v. II, 902, 905), and on coins of L. Marcius Censorinus, which were struck between 86 and 81 B.C. (BMC, Rep I, p. 338, pl. XL, 3, 4). Copies of the statue of Marsyas, which stood near a praetor's tribunal in Rome, were set up as symbols of liberty in the fora of those provincial towns which possessed the ius Italicum.

Statua Marsyae, unpaved area of the Forum in which was the statue was situated, together with the fig and vine
Statua Marsyae, unpaved area of the Forum in which was the statue was situated, together with the fig and vine

Statua Stilichonis

Three monuments were erected in the Forum to Flavius Stilicho, who was Honorius' commander-in-chief. Their dedicatory inscriptions are preserved (CIL VI, 1730, 1731, 31987), although only one, which was found in 1880, is still in situ. This upright block of marble, (which in its original horizontal position supported an equestrian statue), is dedicated to the armies of the emperors Honorius, Arcadius and Theodosius, which in 403 A.D., under the command of Stilicho, conquered Alaric's Goths at Pollentia and Verona, thus rescuing the city for the last time from the onslaught of the barbarians. After his murder in 408 A.D., the name of Stilicho was erased from the inscription.

Statua Stilichonis, the monument to Stilicho for the victory over the Goths; lines 10 and 11, with the name and the titles of Stilicho have been chiselled out
Statua Stilichonis, the monument to Stilicho for the victory over the Goths; lines 10 and 11, with the name and the titles of Stilicho have been chiselled out