[Also known as: Temple of Janus Geminus]
A shrine with two gates dedicated to Ianus in the Forum Romanum “ad infimum Argiletum” (Liv. I, 19). Its foundation goes back to the legendary period of the first Roman kings, and in the 6th century A.D. Procopius, the historian of Justinian, saw the Ianus Geminus still in the same place (Helium Gothicum, I, 25). His description of the shrine corresponds, on the whole, with its representation on a coin of Nero; it was a small rectangular building with folding doors at both ends and bronze side walls. Inside stood the two-faced bronze statue facing east and west.
[Also known as: Arch of Janus]
A four-sided marble arch in the Forum Boarium, standing over the Cloaca Maxima (s. Doliola I, 362). On architectural and stylistic evidence, it belongs to the first half of the fourth century A.D. The “Ianus Quadrifrons” is identified with an “Arcus Constantini” which is listed in the Regionary Catalogue of the Region XI, following “Velabrum.” A brick-superstructure, the remains of a 13th-century tower belonging to the fortress of the Frangipani, was removed in 1830.
[Also known as: Temple of Janus]
After his victory over the Carthaginians at Mylae (260 B.C.), C. Duilius dedicated a temple to Janus in the Forum Holitorium. It was restored by Tiberius in 17 A.D. Its location as recorded in ancient sources “ad theatrum Marcelli”, corresponds with the remains of a temple built in Augustan masonry, which was excavated in 1932/33 immediately to the east of the Apollo Sosianus. A porticus of peperino columns on the east and north sides is at a lower level, near the podium.
In 1927, when the north slope of the Capitol was being cleared of relatively modern buildings, the Church of S. Rita da Cascia on the Via Giulio Romano was removed. This exposed the campanile and a chapel of the Church of S. Biagio de Mercato, which were built into a large dwelling-house of the first half of the 2nd century A.D. The six-storey “insula,” which extends southward as far as the steps of S. Maria in Aracoeli and eastward almost as far as the Capitoline Museum, was excavated in 1928/29. The front of the house which now faces Via di Teatro Marcello displays the second, third and fourth storeys, while a row of shops with mezzanines above them are seen below the modern street level. In front of the second-storey wall, with its double and triple window openings, there was a projecting balcony of brick-work on travertine consoles. This facade of the insula originally faced an interior court, while the southern street-front stood parallel with the Cordonnata which now leads up to the Capitol. The building was also accessible from another street on the north side.
[Also known as: Tiber Island, Isola Tiberina]
South of the Campus Martius a small island lies between two arms of the Tiber, 270 m. long and 70 m. wide. In ancient times it was known as the Insula Tiberina, the Insula Aesculapii or just the Insula. On the advice of a sibylline oracle a snake was brought from the Aesculapium at Epidaurus in 292 B.C. On arriving in Rome it escaped from the ship and swam to the island, where a temple was built to the god. It lay at the south end of the island, where the Church of S. Bartolomeo now stands. No architectural remains of this temple have been found, nor of any of the sanctuaries of Iuppiter Iurarius, Veiovis, Faunus, Semo Sancus, and Tiberinus with which the island was covered. Remains of a 1st century B.C. embankment wall in the form of a ship are visible on the southernmost point of the island. An obelisk stood in front of the Church of S. Bartolomeo until the early part of the 16th century; two fragments of it are now in the Museo Nazionale in Naples and a third is in Munich.
Iulius, Divus, Templum
[Also known as: Temple of Julius Caesar, Temple of the Divine Caesar]
The temple to the deified Caesar was built in the Forum Romanum on the site where, after the Ides of March in 44 B.C., his body was burned. In the year 42 B.C. the triumvirs Octavius, Antonius and Lepidus resolved to build the temple, which was dedicated by Augustus on the 18th August 29 B.C. In front of the temple, connected with it by steps, is a platform “Rostra Aedis Divi Iuli” with an altar in the centre of the front - this marks the place where Caesar was cremated. The Rostra was adorned by the beaks of the ships captured at the battle of Actium.
[Also known as: Temple of Juno Moneta]
On the northern summit of the Capitoline Hill was the citadel (arx) containing the Temple of Iuno Moneta. The temple was vowed in 345 B.C. by L. Furius Camillus and dedicated in the following year. According to Senator Sacconi, the builder of the monument to King Victor Emanuel, the remains of the temple lie beneath the transept of S. Maria in Aracoeli. In the last centuries of the republic, possibly after 269 B.C. when silver coinage was introduced, a building adjoining the temple contained the mint, which was called “Moneta” or “ad Monetam” after the temple. A relief from Ostia depicts a temple which may be identified as that of Iuno Moneta by the geese which spread their wings in front of it. According to ancient legend, the sacred geese which were kept on the arx once saved the city by their cackling, which gave warning of a raid on the fortress and thus saved the last point of resistence during the invasion of Rome by the Gauls.
[Also known as: Temple of Jupiter Custos]
Domitian built a sacellum to Iuppiter Conservator on the exact spot where he hid from the supporters of Vitellius in 69 A.D. When he became emperor he replaced it with a large temple to Iuppiter Custos. The temple was less than 20 metres from the southeast corner of the Temple of Iuppiter Optimus Maximus. Its podium, which came to light in 1896, when the Via di Monte Tarpeio (now Via del Tempio di Giove) was built, was cut through by the new street. Ancient representations of the Temple can be seen on the right hand attic relief on the town side of the Arch of Trajan in Benevento, and possibly also on one of the Marcus Aurelius reliefs in the stairwell of the Palazzo dei Conservatori (H. St. Jones, Cons. Scala II, 7).
[Also known as: Temple of Jupiter Heliopolitanus]
The sanctuary of the Syrian Gods on the Janiculum was excavated in 1908/1909 in the grounds of the Villa Sciarra-Wurts, which in antiquity was the holy grove of the Nymph Furrina, Lucus Furrinae. It was dedicated to Iuppiter Optimus Maximus Heliopolitanus (CIL VI, 422), the head of the Syrian divine trinity. Except for some remains of the perimeter wall, nothing remains of the first temple, which possibly belonged to the middle of the first century A.D. It was orientated east-west. Between 176 and 180 A.D. a new sanctuary was built over the first, by one M. Antonius Gaionas, which had the same orientation. The reconstruction is dated by inscriptions with dedications to Marcus Aurelius and Commodus (CIL VI, 420, 30764, 36793, XIV, 24). After the destruction of the second temple another one was erected in the 4th century under Iulianus Apostata (361-363 A.D.) with a different orientation. It consisted of a temple with a nave and two aisles, and a vestibule divided in three parts at the west end; there was a rectangular court in the middle, and a polygonal sanctuary at the east end. In this sanctuary a triangular altar containing a bronze idol was found, swathed in serpents and surrounded by seven hens’ eggs. The numerous statues, altars and inscriptions were brought to the Museo Nazionale Romano.
Iuppiter Optimus Maximus Capitolinus
[Also known as: Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus]
According to tradition the Capitolinian Temple of Iuppiter was vowed by Tarquinius Priscus, completed by Tarquinius Superbus and dedicated in 509 B.C., the first year of the republic, by the consul Horatius Pulvillus. Three times it was destroyed by fire and each time it was rebuilt more magnificently than before. The first time it burnt down was in 83 B.C. The reconstructed temple was dedicated in 69 B.C. by Q. Lutatius Catulus. The second time was when the supporters of Vespasian were fighting against those of Vitellius. Vespasian restored the temple, which is shown on coins, with six Corinthian columns, and statues of the Capitolinian trinity Iuppiter, Iuno and Minerva within. This temple was also destroyed by fire in 80 A.D., but was immediately restored by Domitian. The measurements and the location of the temple between Via del Tempio di Giove, Via di Villa Caffarelli and Piazzale Caffarelli (s. Iuppiter Custos I, 637) have been ascertained by excavations in 1865, 1875/76 and 1919.
[Also known as: Temple of Jupiter Stator]
According to the legend the Temple of Iuppiter Stator was vowed by Romulus when, after the Rape of the Sabine women, the Romans were driven back to the gate of the Palatine city, the Porta Mugonia. The foundation of a temple on the Sacra Via, directly south-east of the Arch of Titus, which from literary references can be identified with Iuppiter Stator, belongs to the reconstruction by the consul M. Attilius Regulus in 294 B.C. effected in consequence of a similar vow in an analogous situation during the war against the Samnites. On the 8th of November 63 B.C. the memorable assembly of the senate was held here, when Cicero in his first oration accused Catilina, who was also present, of high treason. Since the Middle Ages the Turris Chartularia, which for some time housed the archives of the Roman Church, has stood above the ruins of the temple. When, in 1829, the tower was demolished part of the temple’s foundations came to light.
[Also known as: Temple of Jupiter Ultor]
At the north-east corner of the Palatine on a rectangular terrace (110 x 150 m.) which is partly buttressed by masonry, there are the remains of a temple which extended as far as the Church of S. Sebastiano. The still incomplete excavations show a peripteros 60-70 metres long and 40 metres wide, with internal columns on the sides as well; the Church of S. Sebastiano is standing on the foundation of the pronaos. The temple area, surrounded by porticos, was accessible from the Clivus Palatinus by a monumental gateway whose remains are seen beside Via di S. Bonaventura. According to the ancient sources (Plinius, Nat. Hist. XII, 94; Suetonius, Augustus 5, Galba 1) the site of the temple is identical with a sanctuary erected by Livia to Augustus, and later used for the cult of all deified emperors under the name of Aedes Caesarum. The remains which have now come to light are probably the temple which was erected by Elagabalus (218-22 A.D.) to Sol Invictus Elagabalus, transformed into the temple of Iuppitor Ultor by his successor Alexander Severus. The identity of these two temples results from comparison of a coin of Elagabalus, showing the temple of the Syrian Sun god with a coin of Alexander Severus on which an obviously identical construction is super scribed IOVI ULTORI. Both coins show the gates of the monumental entrance which must be the Pentapylum of Region X (Cod Top I, p. 129), recorded in the Regionary Catalogue. Among other objects considered sacred by the Romans Elagabalus brought the Palladium from the Temple of Vesta to his new temple on the Palatine, whence the place is called Palladium Palatini in antiquity (CIL X, 6441). In the Middle Ages this name was transmitted to the church and convent in the form S. Maria in Pallara and Sancti Sebastiani Palladia.