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The Urban Legacy of Ancient Rome Photographs from the Ernest Nash Fototeca Unione Collection

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Hadrianeum

The Temple of Divus Hadrianus on the Campus Martius was dedicated by Antoninus Pius in 145 A.D. The remains of the cella wall and eleven marble columns of the north side still stand on the Piazza di Pietra. Parts of the marble decoration of the podium or of the inner pedestals have been found at different times during the 16th, 17th and 19th centuries. They bear symbolic representations of the provinces, weapons and trophies. Parts of the cornice are also extant.

Temple of Hadrian, pedestal with representations of provinces, left Mauretania, right Aegyptos
Temple of Hadrian, marble balustrade composed of provinces and trophies collected in the courtyard of the Palazzo dei Conservatori
Temple of Hadrian, part of the marble balustrade with the provinces of Vindelicia on the left and Dacia on the right
Temple of Hadrian, part of a balustrade with a trophy and pedestal depicting Gaul, probably relating to the decoration of the cella, now located in the Museo dei Conservatori
Temple of Hadrian, marble slab with crossed shields and a pedestal with the province of Hispania
Temple of Hadrian, marble pedestal with the provinces of Hispania and Lybia
Temple of Hadrian, cella wall and north side columns on the Piazza di Pietra

Hercules Cubans

In 1889 a sanctuary dedicated to Hercules was discovered on the right bank of the Tiber, within the confines of Caesar’s gardens. On the evidence of a statuette representing Hercules reclining at a table, which was found in a niche of the aedicula, the sanctuary has been identified with the Hercules Cubans, mentioned in the Regionary Catalogue (regio XIV). The epistyle of the niche and two altars standing in front of it bear the inscriptions of its dedication by L. Domitius Permissus. (CIL VI, 30891, 30892). At the sides of the shrine, which was cut into the tufa, there were seven busts of charioteers, set on hermae. The sanctuary was destroyed, but the tufa statuette of Hercules Cubans, the two altars and the seven busts are conserved in the Museo Nazionale Romano.

Tufa statuette of Hercules Cubans, now in the store rooms of the Museo Nazionale Romano

Horrea Agrippiana

A warehouse identified by the inscription on an altar as Horrea Agrippiana has been excavated since 1903, on the Vicus Tuscus, south west of Domitian’s vestibule to the Domus Tiberiana. The building was erected either by Agrippa himself, or in his honour. The main court was surrounded by tabernae, all built of tufa blocks, while the smaller rooms of an inner court were built of brick. Arcades resting on columns and half columns surrounded the court.

Horrea Agrippiana, sacellum of the Genius Loci in the interior courtyard featuring mosaic flooring and pedestal with dedicated inscription
Horrea Agrippiana, interior courtyard featuring travertine slab flooring and later rooms with walls in opus listatum
Horrea Agrippiana, northeast side and perimeter wall in opus latericium, shared with the vestibule of the Domus Tiberiana
Horrea Agrippiana, capital and architectural fragment pertaining to the portico
Horrea Agrippiana, capital and architectural fragment pertaining to the portico
Horrea Agrippiana, southeastern perimeter wall and tabernae built against the slope of the Palatine Hill
Horrea Agrippiana, tabernae on the northeast side with remains of the travertine arcade
Horrea Agrippiana, interior courtyard featuring travertine slab flooring and later rooms with walls in opus listatum

Horrea Galbae

The warehouses known as Horrea Galbae were located immediately behind the Porticus Aemilia (q. v.) together with which they are recorded on a slab of the Severan marble plan (FUR Tav. XXIV). They date from the republican period and were restored by the Emperor Galba. Between 1885 and 1925, when the city district of Monte Testaccio was built, remains of the Horrea have repeatedly come to light. A row of connecting chambers, and the foundations of the portico surrounding the western court were uncovered in 1955, when the foundations of a house were being excavated at the corner of the via Zabaglia and Piazza S. Maria Liberatrice.

Horrea Galbae, end wall of the seven rooms discovered during the excavations in Via Zabaglia

Horrea Piperataria

In 1899 the Sacra Via was excavated in front of the Basilica of Constantine to pre-Neronian levels. On the north side rows of shops were found, with a travertine portico lying in front and to the west, which continued under the basilica. This complex of warehouses and shops was covered by Nero’s Sacra Via and the colonnades lying on either side of the entrance to the Domus Aurea. In place of the demolished tabernae Domitian built the Horrea Piperataria in the Neronian portico on the north side of the Sacra Via. It was a bazaar for eastern goods, pepper and spices; the westernmost tabernae bordered on the Forum Pacis (q. v. I, 536, 541). The building was twice destroyed by fire, in 191 A.D. under Commodus and in 284 A.D. under Carinus. The Basilica of Constantine was built on its ruins.

Horrea Piperataria, remnants of pre-Neronian tabernae with travertine thresholds and walls in opus latericium, to the north of the Via Sacra
Horrea Piperataria, ruins discovered in 1933, beneath the nave floor of the Basilica of Maxentius
Horrea Piperataria, remnants of pre-Neronian tabernae with travertine thresholds and walls in opus latericium, to the north of the Via Sacra
Horrea Piperataria, remnants of a pre-Neronian taberna to the north of the Via Sacra featuring herringbone flooring
Horrea Piperataria, ruins among the foundations of the Basilica of Maxentius and the Via Sacra

Horti Aciliorum

These gardens on the Pincio belonged to the family of the Acilii Glabriones in the 2nd century A.D. The exact dimensions are not known, but architectural remains reach from the Church of SS. Trinita dei Monti to the Aurelian Wall, between Porta del Popolo and Muro Torto. In the south-eastern part of the Villa Medici a Belvedere is built on an octagonal ancient building which may well have belonged to the Horti Aciliorum. A semi-circular nymphaeum with a stair-way, immediately north of SS. Trinita dei Monti, is known from 16th century documents and drawings. The foundation walls of the gardens on the north and east with the so-called Muro Torto were incorporated in Aurelian’s fortifications. Their 1st century B.C. walls were re-faced between 1860 and 1870.

Aurelian Walls, the "Muro Torto" of the Horti Aciliorum
Ss. Trinità dei Monti, capitals from the nymphaeum of the Horti Aciliorum arranged on both sides of the steps leading to the church
Ss. Trinità dei Monti, capitals from the nymphaeum of the Horti Aciliorum arranged on both sides of the steps leading to the church

Horti Sallustiani

The gardens which were laid out in 40 B.C. by the historian C. Sallustius Crispus stretched from the northern slope of the Quirinal to the line of the later Aurelian wall, and in the east as far as Via Piave (formerly Via di Porta Salaria), the western boundary is uncertain. The palace stood in the valley between the Quirinal and the Pincio, which was filled up in 1883. Its remains are still visible in the middle of Piazza Sallustio 14 m. below street level. A casino in the Egyptian style stood on the Pincio with an obelisk (s. Obeliscus Hortorum Sallustianorum) to the west of it, and beyond Via Lucullo was a 2nd century cryptoporticus. A wall with niches, dating from the time of Sulla, closed the valley and had no architectural connection with the buildings on the hill. The Temple of Venus Erucina of 181 B.C., after having been included in the gardens was known as Venus Hortorum Sallustianorum and probably stood at the intersection of Via Lucania and Via Sicilia.

Horti Sallustiani, palace of the gardens of Sallust in the Piazza Sallustio, south wing
Horti Sallustiani, palace of the gardens of Sallust, north wing
Horti Sallustiani, rooms of the north wing
Horti Sallustiani, entrance to the central domed hall
Horti Sallustiani, wall with niches on the Via Lucullo
Horti Sallustiani, cryptoporticus under the garage of the American Embassy in via Friuli, north side
Horti Sallustiani, cryptoporticus, sorth side
Horti Sallustiani, remnants of a palace, right side of the entrance of the rotunda and remnants of the upper floor
Horti Sallustiani, palace, lower floor, north room with mosaic floor, in the southern section of the palace to the right of the rotunda