C

Carcer (Sacrae Viae)

Between the Temple of Antoninus and Faustina and the Temple of Romulus on the Sacra Via there lies, below the level of the street, a row of rooms of which there are three on either side of a narrow corridor. The arrangement of these basement cells, without light and air, led the excavator Giacomo Boni to call the building a “carcer” under the impression that it was for solitary confinement, which was actually a 19th century innovation. The building dates from between 70 to 40 B.C. and may well have been the basement of a house beside the Sacra Via, the upper storeys of which were sacrificed to build Nero’s portico (s. Domus Aurea).

Carcer Mamertinus

[Also known as: Mamertine prison]

The Roman state prison lay at the foot of the Capitoline hill, below the Arx. The name Career Mamertinus does not occur in classical literature. It dates from the medieval tradition of St. Peter’s imprisonment and was in fact the name of a later owner of the property. The Carcer consists of a lower circular room with a domed ceiling, the Tullianum, which originally was only accessible through an opening in the ceiling. Later a trapezoidal room was built above, whose floor cut off the dome of the Tullianum. Between 39 and 42 A.D. a facade of travertine blocks was built by the consuls C. Vibius Rufinus and M. Cocceius Nerva (CIL VI, 1539, 31674).

Carcer Mamertinus, travertine facade with inscription
Carcer Mamertinus, travertine facade with inscription

Castor, Templum

[Also known as: Temple of Castor and Pollux]

The Temple of the Dioscuri Castor and Pollux lies at the southeast end of the Forum Romanum. According to Roman tradition it was vowed after the battle of Lake Regillus in 496 B.C. and was consecrated in 484 B.C. It was restored in 117 B.C. by L. Caecilius Metellus; and more than a hundred years later it was rebuilt by Tiberius, who dedicated it in his own name and in the name of his brother Drusus in 6 A.D. Later renovations are attributed to Domitian and to the period from Trajan to Hadrian.

Temple of Castor and Pollux, the southern and western sides of the podium
Temple of Castor and Pollux, the southern and western sides of the podium
Temple of Castor and Pollux, general view from the Palatine Hill
Temple of Castor and Pollux, general view from the Palatine Hill
Temple of Castor and Pollux, the mosaic pavement of the cella from period between the restoration of Metellus and Tiberius' reconstruction
Temple of Castor and Pollux, the mosaic pavement of the cella from period between the restoration of Metellus and Tiberius' reconstruction
Temple of Castor and Pollux, the three columns from the eastern side of the peripteros
Temple of Castor and Pollux, the three columns from the eastern side of the peripteros
Temple of Castor and Pollux, the southern side of the podium
Temple of Castor and Pollux, the southern side of the podium
Temple of Castor and Pollux, the three columns from the eastern side of the peripteros
Temple of Castor and Pollux, the three columns from the eastern side of the peripteros

Castra Peregrina

The barracks of the “Peregrini” and the “Frumentarii” were discovered in 1905 during the building of the Hospital of “The Little Company of Mary” between Via di S. Stefano Rotondo and Via della Navicella. The plan of the excavations 1904/1909 shows five rows of rooms with porticos in front of them, separated from each other by three streets of the camp. A votive ship, the “Navicella,” which stands in front of S. Maria in Domnica, presumably came from the Temple of Iuppiter Redux, which according to epigraphical evidence (CIL VI, 428) stood in the camp.

Castra Peregrina, dedicatory inscription to the "genius sanctus castrorum peregrinorum"
Castra Peregrina, dedicatory inscription to the "genius sanctus castrorum peregrinorum"
Castra Peregrina, the "Navicella" a copy of a votive ship from the caserma dei Peregrini
Castra Peregrina, the "Navicella" a copy of a votive ship from the caserma dei Peregrini
Castro Pretorio, northern side with remnants of the battlements
Castro Pretorio, northern side with remnants of the battlements
Castro Pretorio, east side with walled-up battlements from the time of Tiberius
Castro Pretorio, east side with walled-up battlements from the time of Tiberius
Castro Pretorio, eastern side with remnants of the gateway
Castro Pretorio, eastern side with remnants of the gateway
Castro Pretorio, northern gateway
Castro Pretorio, northern gateway
Castro Pretorio, tower from the time of Maxentius in the northeastern corner
Castro Pretorio, tower from the time of Maxentius in the northeastern corner

Castra Praetoria

[Also known as: Castro Pretorio]

The barracks for the praetorian guard were built under Tiberius 21/23 A.D. They lay outside the city between the Via Nomentana and the Via Tiburtina, and were built after the pattern of the camp of the Roman legion. It was rectangular, 440 x 380 m., surrounded by walls, with a gate in each of the four sides. Aurelian enclosed the camp in his fortifications, so that its north, east and southern perimeter walls became part of the city wall, and their height, originally 4.75 m., was raised 2.5-3 m.

Cellae Vinariae Novae et Arruntianae, inscription (CIL VI, 8826) with the names of the consuls in the year 102 A.D. Found in march 1878 it identifies the building as a wine warehouse
Cellae Vinariae Novae et Arruntianae, inscription (CIL VI, 8826) with the names of the consuls in the year 102 A.D. Found in march 1878 it identifies the building as a wine warehouse

Ceres Liber Liberaque

This temple was vowed by the dictator L. Postumius in 496 B.C. and consecrated in 493 B.C. It was dedicated to the three gods Ceres, Liber and Libera, that corresponded to the Greek gods Demeter, Dionysus and Kore. It was the headquarters of the plebeian aediles, and the place where their archives and treasure were kept. The remains of a temple podium built of tufa and travertine blocks under S. Maria in Cosmedin in the Forum Boarium is ascribed to the Temple of Ceres

Temple of Ceres, blocks of the temple podium in the courtyard of the church
Temple of Ceres, blocks of the temple podium in the courtyard of the church
Temple of Ceres, the crypt of Santa Maria in Cosmedin cut in the blocks of the temple podium
Temple of Ceres, the crypt of Santa Maria in Cosmedin cut in the blocks of the temple podium

Chalcidicum

At the back of the Curia (q. v. I, 360) two doors opened immediately into the Chalcidicum which had been completed by Augustus together with the Curia (“Curiam et continens ei chalcidicum . . . feci”, Mon. Anc. 19). It connected the Curia with the Forum Iulium terminating its southern portico in the east. The porphyry statue now standing at the south-east wall of the Chalcidicum was found in 1937, lying on the ancient pavement close to the Curia. It cannot be ascertained whether it originally stood in the Curia or in the Chalcidicum.

Chalcidicum, as seen from the Argiletum
Chalcidicum, as seen from the Argiletum

Circus Flaminius

The Circus Flaminius, located in the southern part of the Campus Martius, was constructed by C. Flaminius Nepos in 221 B.C. Although it was seldom mentioned in imperial times it was still standing in the 4th century A.D. and gave its name, “Circus Flaminius,” to the entire regio IX of the Constantinian Regionary Catalogue. In the Middle Ages its name was frequently applied to the Stadium of Domitian in the Piazza Navona. Since the 16th century, however, it has been identified with the ruins known as “ Castrum Aureum" (Bull of Celestin. lll of 4. X. 1192) on the Piazza Paganica, beside the Via delle Botteghe Oscure and near S. Caterina dei Funari. Its location between Piazza Paganica and Piazza Margana was assumed until recently to be so certain that an unmistakable topographical indication in the Mirabilia “circus Flammineus ad pontem Iudeorum ” (Cod. Top. III p. 26) was unanimously thought to confuse the circus with the Theatre of Marcellus. However, new arrangements of fragments of the Severan marble plan, together with discoveries in excavations near the junction of Via d’Aracoeli and Via delle Botteghe Oscure have proved that the circus could not possibly have been located on this street. On the other hand, the fragment with the inscription CIRcus FLAMInius (FUR No. 30) can be fitted into place on the south side of the Porticus of Octavia, whence the true location of the Circus Flaminius must be, somewhere between the Porticus and the Tiber, i. e. “ad pontem Iudeorum” (Pons Fabricius).

Circus Gai et Neronis

[Also known as: Circus of Nero, Circus of Caligula, Vatican Circus]

Caligula built a circus on the right bank of the Tiber in the Horti Agrippinae and decorated its spina with an obelisk (s. Obeliscus Vaticanus). Except for this obelisk, which stood until 1586 in front of the round church of S. Andrea on the south side of St. Peter’s, no other architectural remains of the circus have been found. A funerary inscription in the necropolis under St. Peter’s states that the tomb was “In Vaticano ad CIrcum” and proves that the circus lay close to the necropolis.

Circus of Caligula and Nero, inscription on the tomb of C. Popilius Heracla in the easternmost part of the necropolis under St. Peter's in which he instructs his executors to build his tomb "in VATICano AD CIRCUM"
Circus of Caligula and Nero, inscription on the tomb of C. Popilius Heracla in the easternmost part of the necropolis under St. Peter's in which he instructs his executors to build his tomb "in VATICano AD CIRCUM"

Circus Maximus

This first and largest circus in Rome lay in the valley between the Aventine and the Palatine. Legend has it that it was founded in the time of the kings, but literary sources mention no permanent building until in 329 B.C. The extant remains belong to the imperial period. The following measurements have been ascertained by test-trenches: length of the circus 600 m., width 150 m., length of the arena 550 m., width 80 m., average depth of the cavea 35 m. The entrance gate in the centre of the eastern curve was replaced in 80/81 A.D. by a triple triumphal arch in commemoration of Titus’ conquest of Jerusalem. (CIL VI, 944). In ancient sources it is often called Arcus Vespasiani et Titi.

Circus Maximus, aerial view
Circus Maximus, aerial view
Circus Maximus, the northern half of the curved east end after the 1936 excavation
Circus Maximus, the northern half of the curved east end after the 1936 excavation
Circus Maximus, substructure of the cavea at the eastern end
Circus Maximus, substructure of the cavea at the eastern end
Circus Maximus, substructure of the cavea and ambulatory in the eastern end
Circus Maximus, substructure of the cavea and ambulatory in the eastern end
Circus Maximus, tabernae on the exterior of the eastern end
Circus Maximus, tabernae on the exterior of the eastern end
Circus Maximus, exterior of the eastern end with tabernae and stairway to the cavea
Circus Maximus, exterior of the eastern end with tabernae and stairway to the cavea
Circus Maximus, steps heading to the seats; left, two-storeyed shop
Circus Maximus, steps heading to the seats; left, two-storeyed shop
Circus Maximus, substructure of the cavea at the eastern end
Circus Maximus, substructure of the cavea at the eastern end

Circus Varianus

In 1959 the end of a circus was discovered inside the Aurelian Wall, to the east of S. Croce in Gerusalemme. It is part of the same circus which had been recognized outside the Porta Maggiore on the line of the Acqua Felice. The sole literary evidence for a circus in this place occurs in the life of Heliogabalus, (Hist. Aug. X III, 14 and XIV, 5), according to which that emperor, whose family name was Varius, prepared chariot-races in the Horti Spei Veteris. Sixteenth century antiquarians recognized the remains of a circus near the arcades of the Aqua Claudia, and erroneously associated them with the broken obelisk which lay nearby (s. Obeliscus Antinoi). In reality this obelisk had nothing to do with the circus, and came from the tomb or cenotaph of Antinous on the Via Labicana (today Via Casilina Vecchia). When the Acqua Felice was built in 1585, the northern flank of the circus as far as the city wall was used as a foundation for the aqueduct. Remains of the seating substructures from the eastern extremity of the circus came to light in 1922 and 1938, including part of the curve near the intersection of Via Oristano and Via Alcamo. The recent discovery of the north and south perimeter at the west end of the circus establishes its length at about 565 m. and its breadth at 125 m. (Circus Maximus 600 x 150 m.).

Circus Varianus, part of the northern side-wall of the west end excavated in 1959
Circus Varianus, part of the northern side-wall of the west end excavated in 1959
Circus Varianus, arches of the Aqua Felix on the Viale Castrense built onto the northern end of the cavea
Circus Varianus, arches of the Aqua Felix on the Viale Castrense built onto the northern end of the cavea
Circus Varianus, remnants of the cavea substructures beneath the arches of the Aqua Felix, at the intersection of Via Osieri and Via Lanusei
Circus Varianus, remnants of the cavea substructures beneath the arches of the Aqua Felix, at the intersection of Via Osieri and Via Lanusei
Circus Varianus, remnants of the cavea substructures beneath a pier of the Aqua Felix, featuring a plaque commemorating the re-erection of the Obelisk of Antinous in 1570
Circus Varianus, remnants of the cavea substructures beneath a pier of the Aqua Felix, featuring a plaque commemorating the re-erection of the Obelisk of Antinous in 1570

Claudius Divus, Templum

[Also known as: Temple of Claudius, Temple of the Divine Claudius]

The Temple of Claudius on the northern part of the Caelian was begun by Agrippina the younger, the widow of Claudius. The unfinished building was almost completely destroyed by Nero, but Vespasian restored and completed it. The temple itself, which is marked on a fragment of the Severan marble plan, has not yet been found, but the buttress walls and porticos of the temple terrace on the west, south and east sides still remain.

Temple of Claudius, two-storey arcade on the west side of the temple terrace in the Passionist Convent on the Caelian Hill
Temple of Claudius, two-storey arcade on the west side of the temple terrace in the Passionist Convent on the Caelian Hill
Temple of Claudius, arcade of the western substructure in the Piazza dei SS. Giovanni e Paolo, beneath the bell tower
Temple of Claudius, arcade of the western substructure in the Piazza dei SS. Giovanni e Paolo, beneath the bell tower
Temple of Claudius, the eastern buttress wall of the temple terrace in Via Claudia, rebuilt as a nymphaeum
Temple of Claudius, the eastern buttress wall of the temple terrace in Via Claudia, rebuilt as a nymphaeum
Temple of Claudius, eastern part of the northern buttresses of the temple terrace, showing the remnants of vaulted rooms
Temple of Claudius, eastern part of the northern buttresses of the temple terrace, showing the remnants of vaulted rooms
Temple of Claudius, north-west corner of the temple terrace
Temple of Claudius, north-west corner of the temple terrace
Temple of Claudius, aerial view
Temple of Claudius, aerial view

Clivus Argentarius

The street leading from the Forum Romanum to the Campus Martius was probably known as the Clivus Argentarius in antiquity, although there is no literary proof of it until medieval times. From the direction of the Via Flaminia it went to the tomb of Bibulus (q. v.), along the west side of the Forum Iulium to the Career Mamertinus, and entered the Forum between the Temple of Concord and the Arch of Septimius Severus. The stretch of the Clivus between the Arx and the Forum Iulium was excavated in 1931/32.

Clivus Argentarius, as viewed from north to south, with the Insula Argentaria on the right
Clivus Argentarius, as viewed from north to south, with the Insula Argentaria on the right
Clivus Argentarius, as viewed from south to north
Clivus Argentarius, as viewed from south to north
Clivus Argentarius, as viewed from south to north, with tabernae on the right
Clivus Argentarius, as viewed from south to north, with tabernae on the right
Clivus Argentarius, as viewed from south to north, with tabernae on the right
Clivus Argentarius, as viewed from south to north, with tabernae on the right

Clivus Capitolinus

The Clivus Capitolinus was the only street in antiquity which led to the Capitol. It began in the Forum at the Arch of Tiberius as a continuation of the Sacra Via and the Vicus Iugarius. It led in an ascending curve round the Temple of Saturn, then climbed in a straight line to the southern summit of the Capitoline Hill. The lower part of the Clivus Capitolinus as far as the Porticus Deorum Consentium was excavated in 1818, but when the Via del Foro Romano was built in 1882 it was again covered. The excavations around the Capitoline Hill in 1940 revealed a stretch leading beyond the Porticus Deorum Consentium in the direction of the Temple of Iuppiter.

Clivus Capitolinus, from the Porticus Deorum Consentium to the top of the Via del Tempio di Giove discovered in 1940
Clivus Capitolinus, from the Porticus Deorum Consentium to the top of the Via del Tempio di Giove discovered in 1940
Clivus Capitolinus, in front of the Temple of Saturn in the Roman Forum
Clivus Capitolinus, in front of the Temple of Saturn in the Roman Forum

Clivus Palatinus

Immediately north of the Arch of Titus a road branches off the Sacra Via to the Palatine, which is generally called the Clivus Palatinus although its name in antiquity is not known. On the west side the arcades of the vestibule of Nero’s Domus Aurea stretched as far as the triumphal arch, attributed either to Augustus or Domitian (s. Arcus Domitiani I, 118), which spanned the Clivus. Shortly after the arch all traces of this hitherto paved road disappear.

Clivus Palatinus, start of the ascent to the west of the Arch of Titus
Clivus Palatinus, start of the ascent to the west of the Arch of Titus
Clivus Palatinus, at the level of the Arch of Domitian toward the Roman Forum
Clivus Palatinus, at the level of the Arch of Domitian toward the Roman Forum
Clivus Palatinus, by the Arch of Titus
Clivus Palatinus, by the Arch of Titus

Clivus Scauri

[Also known as: Clivo di Scauro]

The Clivus Scauri, a branch from the road between the Colosseum and the Circus Maximus, leads up from the valley between the Palatine and the Caelian. It passes the Domus Iohannis et Pauli (q. v. I, 433) and passes through the Arch of Dolabellae and Silani to reach the modern Piazza della Navicella, where it met the Vicus Capitis Africae coming from the north. The modern streets Clivo di Scauro and Via di S. Paolo della Croce (formerly Via SS. Giovanni e Paolo) follow approximately the course of the ancient road.

Clivus Scauri, section running from the Piazza dei SS. Giovanni e Paolo towards the Arch of Dolabella and Silanus, today the Via di San Paolo della Croce
Clivus Scauri, section running from the Piazza dei SS. Giovanni e Paolo towards the Arch of Dolabella and Silanus, today the Via di San Paolo della Croce
Clivus Scauri, western part by the Church of SS. Giovanni e Paolo
Clivus Scauri, western part by the Church of SS. Giovanni e Paolo
Clivus Scauri, western part by the Church of SS. Giovanni e Paolo
Clivus Scauri, western part by the Church of SS. Giovanni e Paolo
Clivus Scauri, western segment by the Church of SS. Giovanni e Paolo, today the Clivo di Scauro
Clivus Scauri, western segment by the Church of SS. Giovanni e Paolo, today the Clivo di Scauro

Clivus Suburanus

The Clivus Suburanus was the ancient road leading up from the Subura, behind the imperial fora between Oppius and Cispius. The lower part is identical with the modern Via in Selci, named from the Roman paving-stones (selci) which were visible until the middle of the 19th century. The modern Via di S. Martino ai Monti and Via di S. Vito follow almost exactly the course of the Clivus to the Porta Esquilina in the Servian Wall (Arcus Gallieni).

Forum of Trajan, from the loggia of the Knights of Rhodes
Forum of Trajan, from the loggia of the Knights of Rhodes

Clivus Victoriae

The street leading from the Velabrum to the Palatine takes its name “Clivus Victoriae” from the Templum Victoriae, the remains of which are not yet positively identified. On its route to the north west corner of the hill the rooms of the lower storey of the Domus Tiberiana (q. v. I, 445) lie on the right. Thereafter it turns right and passes on the north side of the Domitianic facade of the Domus Tiberiana.

Clivus Victoriae, next to the northern façade of the Domus Tiberiana on the Palatine Hill
Clivus Victoriae, next to the northern façade of the Domus Tiberiana on the Palatine Hill

Cloaca Maxima

The Cloaca Maxima drained the valleys between the Esquiline, the Viminal and the Quirinal and carried the surplus water along the Argiletum and across the Forum and the Velabrum to the Tiber. It was originally a natural water course, later it was canalised and since after 200 B.C. it has been arched over. Although the Cloaca Maxima mostly follows its natural course it is artificially diverted where buildings make this necessary, as in the case of the Temple of Minerva in the Forum Transitorium and the Basilica Aemilia.

Cloaca Maxima, the outfall in the modern bank of the Tiber
Cloaca Maxima, the outfall in the modern bank of the Tiber
Cloaca Maxima, in the Forum of Nerva immediately east of the Temple of Minerva under an iron manhole cover
Cloaca Maxima, in the Forum of Nerva immediately east of the Temple of Minerva under an iron manhole cover
Cloaca Maxima, travertine lid over a drain, the entrance to a side conduit of the Cloaca Maxima in the lowest part of the Forum Boarium
Cloaca Maxima, travertine lid over a drain, the entrance to a side conduit of the Cloaca Maxima in the lowest part of the Forum Boarium
Cloaca Maxima, to the south of the Janus Quadrifrons (Arch of Janus)
Cloaca Maxima, to the south of the Janus Quadrifrons (Arch of Janus)

Cloacina, Sacrum

The shrine of Venus Cloacina was discovered during the excavations in 1899/1900 immediately beside the steps of the portico of the Basilica Aemilia, and in the place where a drain flowed from under the basilica into the Cloaca Maxima. A marble ring which held a metal grating is still preserved, it rests on a travertine base, under which are further courses of tufa blocks. A coin of L. Mussidius Longus ca. 39 B.C. shows the Cloacina shrine with two statues of Venus, the “Signa Veneris Cloacinae” (Plinius, Nat.Hist. XV, 119).

Shrine of Venus Cloacina, in front of the Basilica Aemilia's portico
Shrine of Venus Cloacina, in front of the Basilica Aemilia's portico
Shrine of Venus Cloacina, in front of the Basilica Aemilia's portico
Shrine of Venus Cloacina, in front of the Basilica Aemilia's portico
Shrine of Venus Cloacina, in front of the Basilica Aemilia's portico
Shrine of Venus Cloacina, in front of the Basilica Aemilia's portico

Cohortium Vigilium Stationes

When Augustus re-divided Rome into fourteen regions seven cohorts of vigiles (police and fire-guard) were established. These were accommodated in seven main barracks, the stationes, and fourteen auxiliary barracks, the excubitoria. Only the statio of the V cohort on the Caelian, and one of the excubitoria of the VII cohort in Trastevere have been found.

Barracks of the VII Cohort of Vigiles, external walls between the Via della VII Coorte and the Via di Montefiore
Barracks of the VII Cohort of Vigiles, external walls between the Via della VII Coorte and the Via di Montefiore
Barracks of the VII Cohort of Vigiles, atrium with an octagonal impluvium and sacellum decorated with frescos
Barracks of the VII Cohort of Vigiles, atrium with an octagonal impluvium and sacellum decorated with frescos

Columna Antonini Pii

[Also known as: Column of Antoninus Pius]

The column erected in memory of Antoninus Pius stood in the Campus Martius in front of the ustrinum (q. v.) of the Antonini, west of the Montecitorio palace, between Via della Missione and Via di Campo Marzio (s. plan II, 1303). The column, a red granite monolith 14.75 m. high, was excavated in 1703 together with its decorated pedestal, and in 1705 it was taken to the Piazza di Montecitorio, where it remained until in 1764 a shed that had been built over it caught fire, and the shaft was so badly damaged that the scheme for re-erecting it had to be abandoned. The red granite was used to repair the obelisk, which was erected in the Piazza di Montecitorio (s. Obeliscus Augusti in Campo Martio). The pedestal was placed in the Cortile della Pigna in the Vatican, and was followed in December 1790 by the sawn-off end of the column with an inscription of 106 A.D.

Column of Antoninus and Faustina, base of the column in the exedra of the Cortile della Pigna, where it was placed in 1885
Column of Antoninus and Faustina, base of the column in the exedra of the Cortile della Pigna, where it was placed in 1885
Column of Antoninus and Faustina, the lower end of the shaft with the signature of the architect Aristeidos under the column base
Column of Antoninus and Faustina, the lower end of the shaft with the signature of the architect Aristeidos under the column base

Columna Marci Aurelii Antonini

[Also known as: Column of Marcus Aurelius, Colonna Antonina]

The “Columna Centenaria (100 feet high) Divotum Marci et Faustinae” (CIL VI, 1585) which was modelled from Trajan’s Column, was decreed after the death of Marcus Aurelius in 180 and completed in 193 A.D. The reliefs which decorate it are arranged in an ascending spiral, depicting scenes from the wars against the Quadi, Marcomanni and the Sarmatians 172/175 A.D. (Bellum Germanicum and Bellum Sarmaticum). In the course of centuries the column became damaged, and in 1589 it was restored by Domenico Fontana. The reliefs of the original pedestal were chiselled off, and a new marble base was created out of material from the destroyed Septizodium (q. v.).

Column of Marcus Aurelius, in the Piazza Colonna
Column of Marcus Aurelius, in the Piazza Colonna
Column of Marcus Aurelius, three relief bands from the column featuring scenes from the Marcomannic Wars
Column of Marcus Aurelius, three relief bands from the column featuring scenes from the Marcomannic Wars
Column of Marcus Aurelius, three relief bands from the column featuring scenes from the Marcomannic Wars
Column of Marcus Aurelius, three relief bands from the column featuring scenes from the Marcomannic Wars

Columna Phocae

[Also known as: Column of Phocas]

The fluted Corinthian column and marble base, which stands on a brick pedestal surrounded by a pyramid of steps in front of the Rostra, formerly supported a gilded statue of the Byzantine Emperor Phocas, to whom it was dedicated in 608 A.D. The inscription (CIL VI, 1200) identifying the monument was excavated in 1813. The steps on the eastern and northern sides were removed in 1903.

Column of Phocas, in the Roman Forum, with steps on the eastern and southern sides
Column of Phocas, in the Roman Forum, with steps on the eastern and southern sides
Column of Phocas, brick pedestal, column base and shaft, west and north sides
Column of Phocas, brick pedestal, column base and shaft, west and north sides
Column of Phocas, in the Roman Forum, northern side
Column of Phocas, in the Roman Forum, northern side

Columna Rostrata C. Duilii

[Also known as: Rostral columns of C. Duilius]

This column, decorated with rostra, was erected in honour of the consul C. Duilius’ naval victory over Carthage in 260 B.C. An ancient copy of its base in Luna marble with the dedicatory inscription (CIL VI, 1300), was found near the Arch of Septimius Severus in 1565. It was brought to the Palazzo dei Conservatori and built into the staircase wall, together with a modern copy of the column. From there it was removed to the Museo Nuovo Capitolino in 1929.

Rostral columns of Gaius Duilius, marble base with remains of its dedicatory inscription
Rostral columns of Gaius Duilius, marble base with remains of its dedicatory inscription

Columna Traiani

[Also known as: Column of Trajan]

This column was erected in 113 A.D. in honour of Trajan, to commemorate his victories over the Dacians. It stood behind the Basilica Ulpia and was flanked by two libraries, one for Roman and the other for Greek books. In its base the emperor’s ashes were placed in a golden urn. The relief decoration, a spiral frieze more than 200 metres long, depicts events in the campaigns of 101/102 and 105/106 A.D. A statue of Trajan formerly stood on top of the column, but it was lost during the Middle Ages. In 1588, Sixtus V replaced it with a statue of the Apostle Peter.

Column of Trajan, the first four relief bands featuring scenes from the Dacian War
Column of Trajan, the first four relief bands featuring scenes from the Dacian War
Column of Trajan, column base with dedicated inscription
Column of Trajan, column base with dedicated inscription

Comitium

The place of assembly of the Roman people which, according to the constitution, was organized in comitia. The Comitium was on the slope of the Capitoline hill below the Arx. On one side it was bounded by the Argiletum and on the other side by a street leading from the Campus Martius to the Forum, later called Clivus Argentarius. The northern boundary was the Curia Hostilia, and to the south, against the Forum, it was bounded by the Rostra. After Caesar had established a new plan of the Forum nothing of the Comitium remained except for the area between the Lapis Niger and the Curia Iulia, which was decorated with a number of honorary monuments, and a fountain in front of the Curia.

Comitium, as viewed from the left
Comitium, as viewed from the left
Comitium, as viewed from the right
Comitium, as viewed from the right
Comitium, marble disc of the fountain base in front of the Curia Julia
Comitium, marble disc of the fountain base in front of the Curia Julia
Comitium, with the Lapis Niger in the foreground to the left
Comitium, with the Lapis Niger in the foreground to the left

Compitum Acili

When the northern spur of the Velia was cut through for the construction of the Via dei Fori Imperiali in 1932, the aedicula of a compitum came to light at the junction of the Vicus Cuprius and another street which ran north-east towards the Carinae. The Vicus Cuprius corresponded with what was then the Via del Colosseo, while the ancient street leading towards the Carinae followed the course of the present Via della Polveriera. An inscription on the architrave of the aedicula records the name of three vicomagistri who dedicated the Compitum Acili when Augustus was consul for the twelfth time, together with L. Cornelius Sulla, and in the eighteenth year of his tribunicia potestas, that is, in 5 B.C.

Compitum Acili, inscription on the architrave, now in the garden of the municipal Antiquarium on the Celian
Compitum Acili, inscription on the architrave, now in the garden of the municipal Antiquarium on the Celian

Concordia, Templum

[Also known as: Temple of Concord]

After the conflict between Patricians and Plebs had been settled, in 366 B.C., the dictator M. Furius Camillus erected a temple to the goddess Concordia on the north-west side of the Forum. It was rebuilt by L. Opimius in 121 B.C., after the death of C. Gracchus. The remains of the temple which are seen today belong to a restoration begun by Tiberius in 7 B.C. and dedicated by him in 10 A.D. as Aedes Concordiae Augustae. The podium retains the ground plan of an oblong cella (45 x 24 metres), with a pronaos 34 metres wide in front of it.

Temple of Concord, podium of the oblong cella joined by the foundation of the smaller pronaos
Temple of Concord, podium of the oblong cella joined by the foundation of the smaller pronaos
Temple of Concord, marble threshold of the cella
Temple of Concord, marble threshold of the cella
Temple of Concord, southeast corner of the podium between the pronaos and the cella
Temple of Concord, southeast corner of the podium between the pronaos and the cella
Temple of Concord, the podium
Temple of Concord, the podium

Coraria Septimiana

In the Regionary Catalogue of the Notitia, and in the Curiosum, a “Coraria Septimiana” is listed in the 14th region Transtiberim. A “Corpus Corariorum Magnariorum Solatariorum” is also mentioned in two inscriptions (CIL VI, 1117, 1118), one of which was found between Via in Piscinula and Via Titta della Scarpetta (formerly: Vicolo della Scarpetta) while the other has been kept in S. Crisogono since the 15th century. Underneath S. Cecilia, immediately next to it, excavations in 1899 revealed a complex which was recognizable as a tannery by seven round tanner’s vats sunk in the floor. The brick work of the vats belongs to the last quarter of the second century A.D., although the building itself is earlier, and the identification of this tannery with the Coraria Septimiana mentioned in the Regionary Catalogue is not improbable.

Coriaria Septimiana, the space with tanning vats, in the archeological complex situated beneath the Church of S. Cecilia in Trastevere
Coriaria Septimiana, the space with tanning vats, in the archeological complex situated beneath the Church of S. Cecilia in Trastevere
Coriaria Septimiana, south side of the room with tanning vats, in the archeological complex situated beneath the Church of S. Cecilia in Trastevere
Coriaria Septimiana, south side of the room with tanning vats, in the archeological complex situated beneath the Church of S. Cecilia in Trastevere

Crypta Balbi

At No. 23, Via di S. Maria de’ Calderari there is an arch of brickwork flanked by two travertine columns which is usually identified with the Crypta Balbi. This name is recorded only in the Notitia Regionum, where it is mentioned together with the Theatre of Balbus in the IXth region. From architectural drawings of the 16th century, showing the ground plan and the elevation of the building, it appears that the brick arch belonged to a double porticus with an upper storey of arcades, wherein the columns were placed above the keystones of the lower arches. The revised location of the Theatre of Balbus on the Piazza Paganica which results from a new re-arrangement of fragments of the Severan marble plan (s. Circus Flaminius I, 266) makes the identification of this porticus with the Crypta Balbi unlikely.

Curia Iulia

[Also known as: Roman Senate House, Curia Julia]

The new senate house begun by Caesar in 44 B.C., and called Curia Iulia in his honour, was dedicated by Augustus in 29 B.C. It was restored by Domitian in 94 A.D., burnt down in the fire under Carinus in 283, and was reconstructed by Diocletian on the original plan. In the 7th century, the building became the Church of S. Adriano, in consequence of which it is well preserved. It was restored to its ancient form in 1935-38.

Curia Julia, in the Roman Forum, restored to its state of restoration by Diocletian
Curia Julia, in the Roman Forum, restored to its state of restoration by Diocletian
Curia Julia, in the Roman Forum, the rear façade of the Curia and the adjoining Chalcidicum
Curia Julia, in the Roman Forum, the rear façade of the Curia and the adjoining Chalcidicum
Curia Julia, in the Roman Forum
Curia Julia, in the Roman Forum
Curia Julia, in the Roman Forum, viewed between the Column of Phocas and the Rostra
Curia Julia, in the Roman Forum, viewed between the Column of Phocas and the Rostra
Curia Julia, the façade and east side of the edifice
Curia Julia, the façade and east side of the edifice