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Rotunda Pillars

Quarta Affrice tabula. Claudius Ptolemy; Nicolaus Germanus. Ulm: 1486
Northern and Central Africa and the Mediterranean Sea are shown, as well as the Nile River, the Red Sea, and the Arabian Peninsula in a trapezoidal projection. Southern Africa is labeled “Terra Incognita” at the bottom. This map is one of several based on Ptolemy's Geographike (ca. 120–150 AD), printed in Vicenza, Bologna, Florence, Rome and Ulm between 1475 and 1486. These Ptolemaic maps appeared after the fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Turks in 1453.
America settentrionale colle nuoue scoperte fin all' anno 1688. Vincenzo Coronelli. Venice: 1688
Coronelli’s rendering of California as an island is considered one of the best depictions of this cartographic fallacy. While inaccurate in this respect, Coronelli’s depiction of the Great Lakes is the most accurate and advanced of that time.
Systema solare et planetarium, in Atlas novus coelestis in quo mundus spectabilis. Johann Gabriel Doppelmayr; Johann Baptist Homann. Nuremberg: 1742
This image of the sun and planets illustrates the heliocentric view introduced by Polish astronomer Nicholas Copernicus in the early 1700s. It depicts the orbits of the planets and their moons as they revolve concentrically around the sun, and includes description by Dutch astronomer Christiaan Huygens.

A fourth map, The Floor of the Oceans, by Marie Tharp, Bruce C. Heezen, and Tanguy de Rémur, 1976, is viewable here.