London to South America: Different knowledges in Cartography

From the London subway to D’Anville’s South America map: different knowledges in cartography by Junia Furtado

D’Anville who lived in Paris from 1697 to 1782 was the last of a long line of great French armchair geographer and was royal geographer to Louis XV and Louis XVI after 1719. While renowned up through the nineteenth century, he is little-known today. In 1802, in the eulogy written to open the Notice des Ouvrages de M.D’Anville, Baron Joseph Dacier said of Jean-Baptiste Bourguignon d’Anville that “savants, travelers, enlightened persons of all ranks and all countries, even the princes of his time, for his desire to contribute to the progress of Geography,” considered him an oracle of the discipline. As proof of the man’s enormous contribution to the development of the subject, the Notice credited him with 211 maps (manuscript and printed), 23 other geographical works, and an impressive collection of maps which included nearly 6,000 items. He soon render his services to the House of Orléans and became member of the Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres de Paris and of the Académie des Sciences. Throughout his life, D’Anville had a penchant for ancient geography, and he said that it was “a subject that was always precious to me.” In 1725, one eye on a future candidacy to the Académie des Sciences de Paris, D’Anville presented the academicians with “a map made for the King of Portugal. It contains all of South Africa from the Equator”. It was the first time he venture in drawing a map of modern geography. I will through this exhibition make a glimpse on D’Anville’s cartography through Rumsey Center Collection.

(Composite of) Amerique Meridionale. Publiee sous les auspices de Monseigneur le Duc
   d'Orleans, Premier Prince du Sang. Par le Sr. d'Anville, M DCC XLVIII Avec Privilege
   Grave par Guill? Delahaye. A Paris, chez l'Auteur, aux Galeries du Louvre
Amérique méridionale Jean Baptiste Bourguignon D´Anville Paris: 1748
In 1748 D’Anville finished his carte Amérique méridionale. This map shows Brazil with borders very similar to those which would be negotiated by the Portuguese two years later in Madrid (Treaty of Madrid, 1750). He configured Brazil as a massive territory extending, from north to south, from the present-day states of Amapá and Rondônia to the mouth of the Río de la Plata and also in the east – west direction, encompassing Amazonia and South America’s center-west. This inversion – of the map inventing the territory – was hardly an innovation. The Amérique méridionale was, then, the first map to draw Brazil in this triangular format, very close to its current shape; it delineated not contemporary borders but the future borders that the Portuguese ambassador, D. Luís da Cunha, believed should be negotiated with the Spanish. And, in fact, the negotiations that resulted in the Treaty of Madrid in 1750 gave Brazil a very similar format to the one portrayed in D’Anville’s map.
London underground railways.
London Underground railways, Johnson Riddle & Company Ltd., 1908
In counterpoint with the previous map, this 1908 map of London’s underground, like the ones since the inauguration of the first line, in 1863, had been characterized to make a correspondence between the representation and the real drawing of the subway lines, without, however, having made life easier for the travelers.